Principal investigators

Balázs Bodó

Associate Professor, socio-legal researcher at the Institute for Information Law (IViR) at the University of Amsterdam. He was a Fulbright Visiting Researcher at Stanford University’s Center for Internet and Society in 2006/7 and a Fellow at the Center between 2006 and 2012. In 2012/13 he was a Fulbright Fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University. In 2013 he moved to Amsterdam as a Marie Curie Fellow at the Institute for Information Law (IViR) at the University of Amsterdam. In 2018 he received an ERC Starting Grant to study the legal, and political implications of blockchain based technologies, and started the Blockchain & Society Policy Research Lab. He has been invited by the European Commission to serve as an expert for various blockchain related projects. In 2019 he has been a senior visiting fellow at the Weizenbaum-Institut für die vernetzte Gesellschaft, Berlin. His academic interests include copyright and economics, piracy, media regulation, peer-to-peer communities, shadow libraries, digital archives, informal media economies, and similar regulatory conflicts around new technological architectures.

  • Bodó, B., & Janssen, H. L. (2022). Maintaining trust in a technologized public sector. Policy & Society, 41(3), 414–429.
  • Bodó, B., Hoepman, J-H., & Brekke, J. K. (2021). Decentralisation: a multidisciplinary perspective. Internet Policy Review, 10(2). 10.14763/2021.2.1563
  • Becker, M., & Bodó, B. (2021). Trust in blockchain-based systems. Internet Policy Review, 10(2).
  • Bodó, B. (2020). Mediated trust: A theoretical framework to address the trustworthiness of technological trust mediators. New Media & Society.
  • Bodó, B., & De Filippi, P. (2022). Trust in Context: The Impact of Regulation on Blockchain and DeFi. SSRN Amsterdam Law School Legal Research Paper Series.
  • Bodó, B. (2020). Trust, blockchain-based technologies, institutions, and the social good. In Scanning the European Ecosystem of Distributed Ledger Technologies for Social and Public Good (pp. 88-91). European Commission – Joint Research Centre.
  • Bodó, B. (2021). The commodification of trust. SSRN.

Jan B. Engelmann

Professor of Neuroeconomics at the Amsterdam School of Economics. His research focuses on the neurobiology of social and economic decision-making, with a focus on how emotions influence our decisions. In the recent past, Jan’s work has in particular focused on the cognitive, affective, and neurobiological determinants of trust decisions. Jan studied Experimental Psychology at the University of St. Andrews (MA) and at Brown University (MSc, PhD). Prior to joining CREED, Jan worked with Economists, Neuroscientists and Clinicians at Emory University, at the Laboratory for Social and Neural Systems Research at the University of Zurich, and, as Radboud Excellence Fellow, at the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior.

  • Jaeger, B, Oud, B, Williams, T, Krumhuber, EG, Fehr, E, Engelmann, JB (2022). Can people detect the trustworthiness of strangers based on their facial appearance? Evolution and Human Behavior 43 (4): 296-303
  • Eriksson, K, Strimling, P, Gelfand, M, Wu, J, Abernathy, J, Akotia, C, Aldashev, A, Andersson, P Andrighetto, G, Anum, A, Arikan, G, Aycan, Z, Bagherian, F, Barrera, D, Basnight-Brown, D, Batkeyev, B, Belaus, A, Berezina, E, Björnstjerna, M, Blumen, S, Boski, P, Bou Zeineddine, F, Bovina, I, Cardenas, J, Cekrlija, D, Choi, H, Contreras-Ibanez, C, Costa-Lopes, R. de Barra, M, de Zoysa, P, Dorrough, A, Dvoryanchikov, N, Eller, A, Engelmann, JB, et al. (2021) Perceptions of the appropriate response to norm violations across 57 Societies. Nature Communications 12: 1481
  • Engelmann, JB, Schmid, B, de Dreu, C, Chumbley, J & Fehr, E (2019) On the psychology and economics of antisocial personality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116 (26): 12781 – 12786
  • Engelmann, JB, Meyer, F, Ruff, CC, Fehr, E (2019) The neural circuitry of emotion-induced distortions of trust. Science Advances 5(3) eaau3413
  • Hein, G, Engelmann, JB, Vollberg, M, Tobler, PN (2016) How learning shapes the empathic brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (1): 80-85
  • Gradin, VB, Pérez, A, McFarlone, IC, Waiter, G, Engelmann, JB, Dritschel, B, Pomi, A, Matthews, K, Steele, JD (2014) Depression alters dorsal caudate responses to fairness in the ultimatum game. Psychological Medicine, 45 (6): 1241-1251.

Theo Araujo

Associate Professor Communication in the Digital Society at the Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR) at the University of Amsterdam. He is co-director of the Digital Communication Methods Lab ( and of the Communication in the Digital Society Initiative ( at the Department of Communication Science. His research focuses on the increasing adoption of artificial intelligence and related technologies within our communication environment, including conversational agents and automated-decision making. He is also interested in the latest developments of computational social science, and in the implementation of large-scale data collection and analysis for communication research. In 2021, he has been awarded a Platform Digital Infrastructure Social Sciences and Humanities Grant to lead a consortium of six Dutch universities to develop a Digital Data Donation Infrastructure (D3I), enabling researchers to partner with users to study digital infrastructures via data donation.

  • Araujo, T., Ausloos, J., van Atteveldt, W., Löcherbach, F., Möller, J., Ohme, J., Trilling, D., van de Velde, B., de Vreese, C., & Welbers, K. (Accepted/In press). OSD2F: An Open-Source Data Donation Framework. Computational Communication Research.
  • Araujo, T., Helberger, N., Kruikemeier, S., & de Vreese, C. H. (2020). In AI we trust? Perceptions about automated decision-making by artificial intelligence. AI & Society35(3), 611-623.
  • Helberger, N., Araujo, T., & de Vreese, C. H. (2020). Who is the fairest of them all? Public attitudes and expectations regarding automated decision-making. Computer Law and Security Review39, [105456].

Tom van Engers

Professor in Legal Knowledge Management at the University of Amsterdam and managing director of the Leibniz Institute, founded by the University of Amsterdam and TNO. He has been involved as strategic advisor in several governmental change programmes, including INDiGO, with the Dutch Immigration Service (IND) [2007-2015]. He has coordinated several international research projects such as E-POWER, Trias Telematica, Estrella and SEAL. He is PC member of international conferences such as ICAIL and DEXA/E-Government, former chair of the EU-Forum working group on Change Management and Cross-Institutional Issues, chair of the JURIX Foundation, member of the E-Government working group of the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP), board member of Juriconnect, chair of CEN/ISSS Metalex workshop on standards for legal sources. His research is focused on normative systems, normative reasoning and normative control, the latter being essential to trust in socio-technical systems.

Marc Tuters

Assistant Professor in the New Media and Digital Culture Division of Media Studies at the Faculty of Humanities, Marc Tuters is affiliated with the Amsterdam School for Cultural Analysis (ASCA) and the Open Intelligence Lab (OILab), of which he is a co-founder. His research concerns radical political subcultures online, which he explores with colleagues at multi-yearly research schools coordinated by the Digital Methods Initiative (DMI), with which he has also been long affiliated. His most important contributions have been on radical right-wing political subcultures and online conspiracy theories, for which he has been a co-Investigator on both the AHRC-funded “” and “Everything is Connected” research networks. This research has formed the empirical basis for a number of high-profile press pieces by well-known journalists in venues such as Buzzfeed, FastCompany, Politico and the Dutch national broadcaster NOS amongst many others. His key publications all concern media infrastructures and narratives of distrust.

  • Tuters, M., & Willaert, T. (2022). “Deep state phobia: Narrative convergence in coronavirus conspiracism on Instagram.” Convergence, 28(4), 1214–1238.
  • Tuters, M., Burton, A. G. (2021) “The Rebel Yell: On YouTube’s Burlesque Traditionalists and Their Alt-Right Audiences.” Canadian Journal of Communication 46 (4). doi:10.22230/cjc.2021v46n4a3937: 757-776
  • Hagen, S., Tuters, M. (2021). “The Internet Hate Machine: On the Weird Collectivity of Far-Right Groups.” Rise of the Far Right: Technologies of Recruitment and Mobilization. Devries, M., Bessant, J., Watts, R. (eds). New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers: 171-192.
  • Tuters, M., Hagen, S. (2020) “(((They))) rule: Memetic antagonism and nebulous othering on 4chan.” New Media & Society, 22 (12). doi:10.1177/1461444819888746: 2218 – 2237.
  • de Zeeuw, D., Tuters, M. (2020) “Teh Internet is Serious Business: On the Deep Vernacular Web and its Discontents.” in Cultural Politics, 16 (2). doi:10.1215/17432197-8233406: 214–232. — honorary mention for ASCA article of the year
  • Tuters, M., OILab. (2020). “Esoteric Fascism Online: 4chan & the Kali Yuga” Far-Right Revisionism and the End of History: Alt/Histories. Valencia, L. D. (ed). London: Routledge: 287-303.

Tuters, M., Jokubauskaite, E., Bach, D. (2018) “Post-Truth Protest: How 4chan Cooked Up the Pizzagate Bullshit.” M/C Journal 21 (3).